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The religious motive was the primary motive that drove the Crusader masses into battle. The symbol of the Crusades, which demonstrates the importance of the religious aspect, was the cross which they put on their weapons and luggage when they headed for Palestine in particular.41 A religious revival movement had appeared in Western Europe in the tenth century, and reached its peak in the eleventh century, strengthening the position of the papacy and stirring up religious fervour in the people's hearts. The church exploited this fervour, finding an external outlet for it. When the idea of a crusade emerged, the churches took Western Europe as a vast arena in which to exploit this suppressed energy and raging fervour.42 This was done in the name of saving Jerusalem from the 'infidel' Muslims.43 The most famous of those who adopted the call for a crusade was Pope Urban II, who is regarded as being primarily responsible for propagating the war against the Muslims and inciting the first campaign against Greater Syria. Circumstances were ripe, so he hastened to hold a meeting in the city of Clermont in France.
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