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This was the Rafidi Shiite view of Egypt during the era when Islam flourished. The Rafidi Shiite al-Majlisi commented on these texts by saying that Egypt became one of the worst lands at that time, because its people became the most wretched of people and the worst of disbelievers.699 It seems that these texts are an expression of the Rafidis' hatred and resentment against Egypt and its people because of the fall of their Ismaili 'Ubaydi brethren at the hand of Salah ad-Deen, who purified the land of Egypt from their filth. What comparison can there be between these unjust words about Egypt and its beloved people and the recommendation of the Messenger (Sm) concerning the people of Egypt?700
This is what the people of Alexandria did to defend Islam and the new Sunni state in Egypt. Alexandria was exposed to Sicilian attack from the sea during the last days of 569 AH/end of July 1174 CE. The Norman fleet was composed of two hundred 701 ships -” or it was said that there were one hundred and eighty â€” carrying fifty thousand men, among whom were thirty thousand fighters, ready to carry out the comprehensive plan that had been drawn up by elements loyal to the Fatimids with the kings of Jerusalem and Sicily, with the aim of reviving the Fatimid caliphate702 in Egypt and restoring the Rafidi Shiite madh-hab to its former position. The Norman campaign arrived off the coast of Alexandria on 16 Dhul-Hijjah, after the conspiracy had been discovered and the conspirators had been wiped out, and after the death of Amalric I king of Jerusalem. The Normans began their attack on Alexandria and succeeded in sinking some of the Egyptian boats which were moored along the coast.703 The Ayubid army and the people of Alexandria displayed great courage. They burned the testudos704 of the enemy which had been set up near the wall "and they did well in fighting and remaining steadfast. Salah ad-Deen was absent from Alexandria. When he reached it, the fighters' tiredness and pain from wounds disappeared and each of them thought that Salah ad-Deen was with him, so each of them fought as if he wanted to show how well he could fight."705
The Crusaders had no option but to surrender, and they were all either killed or taken captive.706 Thus the army of Salah ad-Deen and the people of Alexandria dealt a crushing blow to those who had had the idea of invading Egypt, and they did not think of making a second attempt during the lifetime of Salah ad-Deen, even though they never gave up the idea completely, as they tried again a quarter of a century after the death of Salah ad-Deen.707
The conspiracy of Kanz ad-Dawlah
One of the conspiracies faced by Salah ad-Deen in Egypt was that which was plotted in Aswan and Qoos in 570 AH. Kanz ad-Dawlah, the governor of Aswan, assembled the Arabs and the Sudanese people, and headed to Cairo, seeking to restore the Fatimid state. He spent a great deal of wealth on his hordes and was joined by a group of others with similar inclinations. He killed ten of Salah ad-Deen's emirs. There emerged in the village of Tood a man who was known as Qiyas ibn Shadi, who seized the land of Qoos and plundered its wealth. Salah ad-Deen prepared his brother al-Malik al-'Adil and a huge army, and they attacked and dealt a heavy blow to Shadi, scattering his troops and killing him. Then he marched on and met Kanz ad-Dawlah in the vicinity of Tood. There were battles between them, and Kanz ad-Dawlah fled after most of his troops were killed. Then Kanz ad- Dawlah was killed, and al-Malik al-'Adil returned to Cairo on 18 Safar.708 Thus Salah ad-Deen managed to put an end at an early stage to the turmoil caused by these thugs and 709 gangsters.
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