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Sojudge you between men in truth (and justice). Not follow you the lusts of your heart, for they will mistlead you from the path of Allah. For those who wander astray from the path of Allah is a penalty grievous, for that they cannot forget the day of Account.(37:21-26)
In these verses there is mention of a test of Nabi Dawud (A) from Allah (SWT). Initially he did not understand it was a test but suddenly the realisation came to him that this is a test from Allah (SWT) and immediately as is the case with Allah's chosen Messengers, he turned to Allah in repentance, seeking forgiveness, which was granted by Allah, and led further to his acquiring a place of high rank with Allah (SWT).
The Tafseer of the Verses
The Qur'an only mentions as much as in quoted above. There is no detailed description of the test. In this respect some Mufassirs went depended on various Israeli stories and fabrication to explain the matter, but these are not acceptable at all.
Maulana Hifzur Rahmaan Seoharwy discusses all those stories in detail and finally came to the following conclusion: "In our opinion the best interpretation for those verses is that which best fits in with the wording and connection with the preceding verses and is in accordance with the following verses and is best in understanding the sequence of wordings, and that which is based on a report of Abdullah bin Abbaas (A) That 'Athar' of Abudullah bin Abbas (A) is as follows: Abdullah bin Abbaas (A) says that Nabi Dawud (A) has for the sake of division of work divided them into four days: one solely for Ibaadah, one day forjudging cases in disputes, one day for himself and one day for preaching and guidance of Bani Israel."
But among those days most importance was granted to the day set aside solely for worship of Allah. In actual fact no other day of his was ever completely devoid of Ibaadat, but one day was specially set out for it. During that day no other work was touched. The Qur’an refers to him being Innahu Owwabun, a reference to this special quality.
Further the Qur'an and the history of Bani Israel tells us that Hazrat Dawud (A) used to close the doors around him as he proceeded with glorifying Allah and praising His name, so that there can be no disturbance. In other words there was only one day when it was extremely difficult to reach him as he was completely cut off from Bani Israel, when as on the other days there was always a chance to meet him in cases of unforseen circumstances.
Hence Allah (SWT) wanted to test Nabi Dawud (A) by sending two men to him with a dispute on the special day set aside for baadat, jumping over the wall of his special privately secluded place and entering unto him. When Hazrat Dawud (A) saw the two men in front of him he naturally experienced fear. They quickly realized it and put him at ease and told him the reason for their coming was for him to give judgement in a dispute between them. He listened to them and gave judgement.
At this stage the Qur'an turns away from the judgement as it seems logical to anyone with thinking faculties, that Hazrat Dawud (A) judgement was correct, and only emphasized and highlighted that part of the story which dealt with guidance viz performing an injustice on others by force of your might.
Anyway after giving judgement Nabi Dawud (A) immediately became aware of the fact that Allah (SWT) had tested him. He immediately understood and repented with sincerity, prostrating to Allah and begging for forgiveness. Allah accepted his plea for forgiveness and gave him this advice. O Dawud, We have made you our Khalifa on earth and your duty is to perform this duty with diligence and to remember at all times that on this path it is of the utmost importance to act with justice and not to stray from the straight path.
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