Sura Al-Imran (Tafseer-ul-Maariful Quran), Part-05



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Meaning of محكم: Muhkam and متشابهات: Mutashibihat
Allah Almighty has, by mentioning : محكمات Muhkamat and متشابهات right there in the beginning, pointed out towards a general principle which, if understood, could eradicate many doubts and disputes. The principle is that the Holy Qur'an has two kinds of verses; one is known as the Muhkamat (of established meaning) and the other as the Mutashibihat (whose definite meanings are unknown).

Muhkamat! is the name of verses the meaning of which is open and clear to one who knows the rules of Arabic grammar fairly well. But when the meanings and explanations of particular verses are not clear to such' a person, then, such verses are called the Mutashibihat?. (Mazhari, v.2)

Allah Almighty has called the first kind of verses, that is, the Muhkamat ام الكتاب  Ummal-Kitab('which has been translated literally as mother verses') meaning thereby that such verses are the very root and essence of all teachings, and the meanings and explanations of which are free of doubt or ambiguity.

Since the exact intention of the second kind of verses, that is, the Mutashibihat, ains ambiguous and uncertain, therefore, the correct method of their interpretation would be to harmonize them with the first kind, that is, the Muhkamat. Then, the rule is that any interpretation of the Mutashibihat which goes against the first kind should be rejected absolutely and only that interpretation should be given credence which is not against the verses of established meaning '(Muhkamat) For example, the Holy Qur'an has clarified the position of Sayyidna 'Isa (A) (Jesus Christ) by saying إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا عَبْدٌ أَنْعَمْنَا عَلَيْهِ (he is nothing but a servant upon whom We have bestowed Our blessing-43:59), or as elsewhere in the Qur'an, by إِنَّ مَثَلَ عِيسَىٰ عِندَ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ آدَمَ ۖ خَلَقَهُ مِن تُرَابٍ (the example of 'Isa (A) before Allah is like tat of Adam whom He created from clay - 359).

These and several other verses like them show it clearly that Sayyidna 'Isi Masih, (A) , is a chosen servant of Allah created by Him. Therefore, the claim of Christians investing him with godhood and sonship is not correct.

Now, if someone closes his eyes towards all these verses which have an established meaning and unnecessarily coils with the expressions, كلمة الله (the Word of Allah) and وروح منه, (a spirit from Him) and their likes from the category of Mutashibihat ( Verses whose definite meanings cannot be ascertained) and starts deducing from them meanings which are against the Muhkamat of Qur'an and other consistent statements, then, that would be a simple case of going astray and being obstinate.

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