According to the Torah as well as ancient and present day historical references it has been established that he gathered and united all the Iranian tribes into a kingdom and Empire and even conquered the great civilized lands of Babilon and Nineveh and to such an extent extended the boundaries of his kingdom that actually Allah did grant him all the necessities for life and government.
3. The Qur'an states that Zul Qarnain undertook three noteworthy expeditions. In truth historical facts also show that he undertook three important expeditions.
4. According to historical records Khorus's first expedition was towards the west.
The Qur'an states:
"Verily we established his power on earth and we gave him the ways and means to all ends. One such way he followed until he reached the setting of the sun, he found it set in a spring of murky water. (5:56-58)
According to Herodatus, the Greek historian and other historians it is established that Khorus's first and most important expedition was towards the west when as a result of the treacherous actions of the Lydian King, Cardisus, Khorus was obliged to launch an attack on Lydia. This was situated near the western most shore of Asia Minor. Herodotus says this expeditions was so brilliant and miracilous that within fourteen days he managed to conquer all the territory up to the Western shore, conquering such a town as Sardis which was well fortified. All the territory up to the Aegean Sea became his. In this sea there were many islands and it appeared like a lake, the water being so murky that the sun setting appears as if it set in a dark swamp.
5. The Qur'an states that Allah gave Zulqamain such a victory over the people that he could do with them as he wished. He could either punish them for their evil deeds or he could treat them kindly and mercifully.
Histoiy tells us that after Khorus had gained the upper hand over Lydia, he did not like the general king of his lime treat them with destruction and harshness, but instead treated them with justice and mercy. He did not destroy them but in fact announced a general pardon to all the enemies and did not even exile the enemies. In fact apart from the fact that he had cardisus captured, it further did not appear as if any change of government and ruler took place. In fact he-first gave the order that Cardisus should be burnt to death on a funeral pure but when all was ready he even pardoned him and treated him with honour and respect.