Sura Al-Imran (Tafseer-ul-Maariful Quran), Part-100

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Once again, prosperity and success have been made dependent on Sabr and Taqwa.

The two words, Sabr and Taqwa though looking like a short title, are nevertheless very comprehensive. They contain within themselves a successful rule for all aspects of individual and collective life as well as public, government and military affairs.

The Holy Prophet (SM) has said, as narrated by Sayyidna عن ابي ذر قال قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم اني لاعلم اية لواخذ الناس بها لكفتهم وَمَن يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يَجْعَل لَّهُ مَخْرَجًا  الاية رواه احمد

I know a verse which, if people were to take to it, would suffice them. And that is: 'And whoever fears Allah, for him He shall make a way out (of the difficulties) - 65 2 '

Verses 121 - 123
[١٢١]وَإِذْ غَدَوْتَ مِنْ أَهْلِكَ تُبَوِّئُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَقَاعِدَ لِلْقِتَالِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

[١٢٢]إِذْ هَمَّت طَّائِفَتَانِ مِنكُمْ أَن تَفْشَلَا وَاللَّهُ وَلِيُّهُمَا ۗ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ

[١٢٣]وَلَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ بِبَدْرٍ وَأَنتُمْ أَذِلَّةٌ ۖ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

And when you left your house in the morning in order to place the believers in positions for fighting. And Allah is all-Hearing, all-Knowing. [121] When two of your groups were about to lose heart, while Allah was their guardian. And it is in Allah alone that the believers must place their trust. [122] And Allah certainly supported you at Badr when you were weak. So, fear Allah that you may be grateful. [123]

Sequence
In the previous verses, it was said that no power could harm Muslims if they observed patience and fear of Allah (sabr and taqwa). Now, the temporary set-back faced by Muslims during the battle of Uhud was due to their failure to observe these rules of conduct fully. The present verses remind Muslims of what happened during the battle of Uhud, and also, of their victory at the battle of Badr.

Commentary:
Before we proceed to explain these verses, it is appropriate that we have before us a sequence of events that came to pass at Uhud.

The background of the Battle of Uhud:
It was the month of Ramadan, Hijrah year 2, when the Quraysh army and Muslims mujahidin fought a battle at badr in which 70 well-known kuffar (disbelievers) of Makkah were killed and an equel number was taken prisoners. This defeat, disastrous and disgraceful as it and really the first instalment of Divine punishment, mnsed the Quraysh; their search for revenge knew no bounds. The relatives of Quraysh chiefs who were killed at Badr, appealing to the traditional Arab pride, resolved that they would not rest until they have avenged their defeat at Badr at the hands of the Muslims. They proposed to Makkans that the sale proceeds from things brought in by their trade caravan from Syria should be spent on nothing but this war so that they can avenge the slaying of their comrades by Muhammad (SM) and his companions. To this, everybody agreed and it was in the Hijrah year 3 that the Quraysh, along with several other tribes as well, marched out to mount an attack on Mdadinah. The invading force included even women so that they could appeal to the sense of honour their men had and implore them not to retreat, if they ever did.

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