Sura Al-Baqarah (Tafseer-ul-Maariful Quran), Part-199

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The manner in which the Holy Prophet (SM) has practiced the instructions given in the Holy Verse is sufficient to disclose that although it is allowed in such an emergent situation to remove the Ihram after offering a sacrifice, yet it will remain obligatory to perform the Hajj or the 'Umrah afresh as a qada' (whenever the circumstances allow to do so). That is why the Holy Prophet (SM) and his Companions did perform the 'Umrah next year as a qada' for the 'Umrah missed by them at Hudaybiyynh.

In this verse, the shaving of the head has been indentified as the signal for removing the Ihram which proves that shaving the head (halq)or trimming the hair (qasr)in a state of Ihram is forbidden. In view of this, the next injunction tells us the way out for one who faces a compelling need to shave his head in a state of Ihram.

Shaving in the state of Ihram?
In the text of the Holy Qur'an, it is said: فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ that is, if one is forced to shave hair on the head, or any other part of the body, because of some ailment or irritating lice, one can do so in proportion to the need, but it has to be redeemed by giving fidyah in the form of fasting, charity or sacrifice. The place for sacrifice is fixed; it has to be offered within the limits of Haram. There is no such fixed place for fasting and charity; these obligations can be accomplished anywhere. The number of fasts and the amount of charity find no mention in the words of the Holy Qur'an, but in a hadith of Sahih al-Bukhari, the Holy Prophet (SM) prescribed in a similar situation faced by the noble Companion Ka'b ibn 'Ujrah that he should fast for three days or give 112 sa' of wheat as charity to six needy persons. This 112 su' comes to approximately 1.632 kilograms of wheat or its price in cash.

Combining Hajj and 'Umrah during Hajj months
Before the appearance of Islam, the Arabs in Jahiliyyah would not combine Hajj and 'Umrah during Hajj months, that is, after the advent of Shawwal. They thought it was a sin. Towards the end of this verse, their misconception was corrected by restricting the prohibition on combining Hajj and 'Umrah during the months of Hajj to only those who live within the limits of Miqat because it is not difficult for them to return for 'Umrah after the Hajj months. But, for those coming from outside the Miqat limits, it was declared permissible because it is not easy for them to make a special trip exclusively for 'Umrah all the way from such distances. Miqat is one of the several stations appointed by Allah Almighty on every route leading to Makkah from all over the world and it has been made obligatory on everyone proceeding to Makkah to wear Ihram at this point to perform Hajj or 'Umrah. Going beyond this appointed place without Ihram is a sin. The verse لِمَن لَّمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حَاضِرِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ means just this, that is, combining Hajj and ' Umrah ' is permissible only for a person whose family does not live within the environs of al-Masjid al-Haram, or in other words, within the limits of the appointed stations known as Miqat.

However, those who combine the Hajj and 'Umrah during the Hajj months are obligated to demonstrate their gratefulness for having been allowed to combine two acts of 'Ibadah. This gratitude is expressed by offering a sacrifice, if one is capable of that. This sacrifice may be offered by slaughtering a goat, cow or camel whichever is easy. But, one who is financially incapable of doing so, he is obligated to fast for ten days, the first three within the Hajj days completing them by the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah, the rest of seven fasts he can complete after the Hajj at a place and time of his choice. He could do so while living in Makkah or when he returns home. If a person fails to fast for three days during the Hajj days, for him, in the view of revered Companions, and Imam Abu Hanifah, offering a sacrifice is mandatory. As soon as it is possible, he can have the sacrifice offered in the Haram through someone he knows (Jassas).

Al-Tamattu' and Al-Qiran the two kinds of Hajj
Combining the Hajj and 'Umrah during Hajj days takes two forms. The first method is to enter into Ihram for Hajj and 'Umrah both right from the Miqat. This is known as Al-Qiran in the terminology of hadith. Under this method the release from the Ihrarn is tied with the release from the Ihram of Hajj. The pilgrim has to stay in a state of Ihram until the last day of Hajj. Under the second method it is possible to enter into Ihram exclusively for 'Umrah from a Miqat and after reaching Makkah al-Mukarramah, and performing the fixed rites of 'Umrah one can get out of the Ihram. After that, when getting ready to go to Mina on the eighth of Dhul-Hijjah, he should enter again into the Ihram of Hajj right within the Haram. This is technically known as Al-Tamattu'. Literally, the word Tamattu covers both methods since it means 'to have the benefit of combining Hajj and ' Umrah both' which is equally applicable to both the methods detailed above. The words فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ (Then, whoever avails of the advantage) in the present verse of the Holy Qur'an have been used in this general sense.

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