Sura Al-Maidah (Tafseer-ul-Maariful Quran), Part-70

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The parting will of the Holy Prophet (SM)
on the occasion of the Last Hajj
In this Khutbah before a huge gathering of his noble Sahabah, after he had given important instructions to them, he asked the audience: الا هل بلغت (Listen: Have I conveyed your religion to you?). The Sahabah confirmed that he certainly had. Thereupon, he said: You be a witness on this. And along with it, he also said: فليبلغ الشاهد الغائب (that is, those present in this gathering should convey my message to those who are not here). Included among the absent are those who were present in the world at that time but were not present in the gathering itself and also included are those who were yet to be born. The method of conveying the message to them was the spreading of the knowledge of the Din of Allah, a duty which was fulfilled by great efforts made by the Sahabah and the Tabi'in.

It was under the direct influence of this parting advice that the noble Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all, took the words and deeds of the Holy Prophet (SM) as a weighty trust of Allah and did their best to ensure that not a single sentence uttered by his blessed tongue should remain unconveyed to his Urnrnah. This holds true under all normal conditions. However, if someone did not narrate a particular Hadith before people for a special reason or compulsion, he made it a point to do that before his death by reciting it to at least some people around so that they could be relieved of the burden of trust they have been carrying on their shoulders. A similar event about a Hadith from Sayyidna Mu'adh رضي الله عنه has been reported in the Sahih of al-Bukhari, that is,

that is, Sayyidna Mu'adh recited this Hadith at the time of his death so that he would not become a sinner because of his failure to convey this trust with him to others.

The Protection of Allah In the second sentence of the last verse: وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ (And Allah shall protect you from the people), good news has been given to him that his enemies would remain unable to do anything harmful against him despite their myriad demonstrations of animosity.

It appears in Hadith that, before the revelation of this verse, some Companions generally used to stay around him in order to protect him. They guarded him wherever he was, in the city or in travel. After the revelation of this verse, he relieved them all as no security arrangements were needed anymore. Allah had Himself taken that responsibility.

In a Hadith narrated by Sayyidng Hasan, the Holy Prophet (SM) has been reported to have said: When I was charged with the duty of conveying the message of Allah as His prophet, the charge appeared to be very frightening because people around me were bound to falsify and oppose me. Then, as this verse was revealed, I was at peace. (Tafsir Kabir).

Thus, after the revelation of this verse, no one dared to harm the Holy Prophet (SM) during his efforts to spread the message of Islam as a prophet of Allah. Any casual injury received in Jihad battles is not contrary to this.

Verses 68 - 69
[٦٨]قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَسْتُمْ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ حَتَّىٰ تُقِيمُوا التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنجِيلَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۗ وَلَيَزِيدَنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنْهُم مَّا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ طُغْيَانًا وَكُفْرًا ۖ فَلَا تَأْسَ عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

[٦٩]إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالصَّابِئُونَ وَالنَّصَارَىٰ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Say, "O people of the Book, you have nothing to stand unless you uphold the Torah and the Injil and what has been sent down to you from your Lord." And what has been sent down to you from your Lord will certainly increase many of them in rebellion and disbelief. So, do not grieve over the disbelieving people. [68]

Surely, those who believe, and those who are Jews, and I the Sabians, and the Christians whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, and acts righteously, shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve. [69]

Sequence
Earlier, the people of the Book were persuaded to embrace Islam. Mentioned now is the futility of their current approach which they claimed to be the God's truth while it was unworkable in the sight of Allah, insufficient for salvation and dependant on Islam as the only source of salvation. Then, as an antidote to their insistence on remaining disbelievers after being warned, there are words of comfort for the Holy Prophet (SM). The mention of Tabligh of Din had appeared in between as based on particular need and congruity.

Commentary
Follow the Divine Shari'ah : Instruction
for the people of the Book
In the first verse (68),the people of the Book, that is, the Jews and Christians were instructed to follow the Divine Shari'ah by making it clear that they would be reduced to nothing if they chose not to abide by the injunctions of the Shari'ah. In other words, if they do not adhere to the Shari'ah of Islam, all their achievements shall stand wasted. To them Allah had given the privelege of being the progeny of prophets. Then, they had the intellectual excellence of the Torah and the Injil as well. Added to this was the presence of many men of Allah among them who went through strenuous spiritual exertions in their search for truth. But, for all this to be valid and weighty the one binding condition was that they should follow the Divine Shari'ah. Without it, no geneological superiority will work, nor would their intellectual excellence or their spiritual strivings become the means of their salvation.

This statement provides for Muslims too the crucial guidance that there is no way of Dervishes or path of spiritual realization (Suluk & Tariqat ) or repeated strivings to achieve spiritual goals (Mujahadah and Riyadat) or extra-sensory spiritual illumination (Kashf) or having visitations of inspiration (Ilham which can become the source of spiritual achievement or salvation in the sight of Allah unless there is full adherence to the Shari'ah.

To prove one's obedience to the Divine Shari'ah, the instruction given in this verse is to follow three things. These are the Torah and Injil which had been revealed earlier for the Jews and Christians while the third one is: وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ that is, what has been revealed to you from your Lord.

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